Category Archives: Prospect Theory

Secrets of Optimising Gambling Sites – Bonuses

Challenges and Opportunities :

Until I moved to Gibraltar, the self-proclaimed home of online gambling, I had not given much thought to the challenges of optimising online gambling sites. I previously worked in e-commerce and financial services so it was a bit of a change.

Once I had completed a year in the sun I moved to London to work on gaming sites for a further two and half years. I now offer conversion rate optimisation consultancy services to a range of sectors, including gambling sites, and would like to share my thoughts on the challenges and opportunities for optimising these kinds of sites.

In this first post I outline my thoughts on the use of bonuses as an acquisition and retention tool.

Complexity turns customers off:

 

Behavioural psychologists have noticed that mental maths, complex language and reading rules in poor fonts triggers our slow, methodical System 2 decision making process. This alters our mood and makes us less impulsive as we focus our attention on the matter in hand. It can also often result in frustration and unhappiness. Even a simple frown has been found to negatively affect our mood.

As a result gambling sites using dark and low contrast pages are automatically ringing alarm bells in our brain as we sense danger in such environments. This makes people especially cautious, conservative and risk adverse.

Image of low contrast text on Titanbet.co.uk
Image source: Titanbet.co.uk

Some gaming sites also suffer from this reaction due to the complexity and presentation of their sign-up and deposit bonus offers. This is compounded by designers who wrongly believe that displaying small print in grey text on dark backgrounds is less distracting for users. The opposite is true as psychologists have discovered that this type of page design results in disfluency which disrupts the mental flow, increasing perceived effort and leads to cognitive strain.

Insight:

  • Use high-contrast designs unless you want visitors to take extra care with reading instructions. Psychologists have found that low-contrast text encourages people to think more carefully when reading content in such environments and they are less honest compared to high-contrast sites.
  • Avoid difficult to pronounce words as easily read words evoke positive feelings, but the opposite is true for difficult for words that are not.
  • Use familiar words (e.g. avoid jargon) as if something is unfamiliar we are more critical and suspicious of it. We are, also more accepting of familiar ideas and phrases.
  • Avoid multitasking (switching from one task to another) as our brains are not designed for this. Ideally pre-populate bonus code fields. Otherwise allow customers to copy bonus codes (i.e. don’t use images). For mobile customers ask them to take a screen shot of the bonus code as our short-term memory has very limited capacity.
  • Don’t ask for too much information at once. Divide tasks into small steps and break-up registration forms into a number of separate pages. Only ask for information that is absolutely necessary (e.g. gender can be inferred from a person’s name).
  • Ensure there is a clear and compelling differences between choices offered to customers. Asking people to make trade-offs between offers (e.g. welcome packages) which lack a clear reason to select either option creates conflict and makes decision making onerous. It forces us to think about opportunity costs and the losses inevitably involved. Introducing a third, obviously inferior option, presents a comparison that simplifies the decision for customers (see decoy effect).

Gains are nice, but losses motivate more:

Due to loss aversion we understand that people are more concerned about avoiding a loss than making a gain of the same size. This means that if we frame a gain as loss (e.g. “Don’t miss out on a free £10 welcome bonus”) it will be perceived to be more valuable than expressed as a simple gain.

The Benefit of Segregating Gains –  Loss Aversion

 

Chart showing the benefits of segregating gains due to loss aversion
Image source – PDF

 

However, hedonic framing tells us that two individual gains are perceived to be more valuable than a single larger gain of the same total amount. This means you should always segregate gains and especially small gains as the gain curve is steepest near the origin (see diagram below). This suggests that gaming companies would be better to focus on offering a series of small bonuses rather than a single large bonus.

Insight:

  • Focus on offering a series of small bonuses rather than a single large bonus as this will be perceived to have significantly greater value to customers.
  • Smaller gains should also be segregated from larger losses because of the steepness of the gain curve means that the utility of a small gain is likely to exceed the utility of slightly reducing that of a large loss.

This is also called  the silver lining effect and explains the appeal of cash-back or loss-back promotions such as this one from Paddypower. Slot machines also benefit from the phenomena as they show winnings separately from the amount wagered.

Image of cashback offer from paddypower.com
Image source: Paddypower.com

 

  • Loss aversion also indicates that people should add together losses because the loss function is convex. This means that when we make multiple small losses and look at them separately we feel more pain than if we combined them into a single loss. This explains why people get more concerned about a series of small losses than a single large loss of around the same size.

 

Rewards need to be achievable to motivate:

As I discussed in my post on the psychology of rewards, offering an incentive to complete a task can be a great way of motivating people, but for this to work effectively the goal needs to be achievable without too much effort. Otherwise people become despondent and lose interest. For some sites where there is also a time limit to release a bonus this is a concern as the level of commitment required can be unrealistic for most recreational players.

For example to release the poker bonus shown below from Betfair.com you need to earn 1,250 Status Points before you get your first £10 and you have to achieve this within 45 days. However, if you want to start off on beginners tables  as I did with micro-stakes you will earn relatively few Status Points and will struggle to obtain a bonus despite playing a lot of poker.  There appears to be little allowance for inexperienced players who want to play for low stakes or that for £10 it’s just not worth the effort.

Image of poker deposit bonus terms and conditions from Betfair.com
Image source: Betfair.com

 

The challenge here is to design bonuses that protect companies from potential fraud without penalising genuine new poker customers. The simplest way to deal with this problem is keep the first time deposit bonus to a relatively small sum (e.g. £10) as many new players only deposit the minimum amount when they first sign up.

PokerStars offers a £20 first deposit bonus for all customers who deposit £10 without any need to wager their own money to release the bonus.  This is a much better user experience than discovering you have to earn points within so many days as otherwise your bonus will expire.

Image of deposit bonus of £20 from pokerstars.com
Image source – Pokerstars.uk/

Insight:

  • Rewards need to be perceived as achievable to be effective incentives to help attract and retain customers. Onerous rules and time limits for releasing bonuses reduce their appeal as they lead to anxiety and frustration among regular customers.
  • This often results in poor retention rates which marketing then responds to by offering additional bonuses as an incentive to reactivate customers. Keeping incentives simple and making them more achievable may help break this cycle for some customers and encourage greater loyalty.

It’s not all about bonuses:

Image of 888.com poker table
Source: 888poker.com

Although bonuses are a useful acquisition and retention tool, it’s not the main reason why most genuine customers want to gamble online.  As with any optimisation process successful organisations need to begin by understanding customers and developing a strong value proposition that is aligned to customer expectations and goals. The Lift Model from Widerfunnel is my favourite optimisation tool as it’s a simple but effective way to visualise the optimisation process.

Image of Widerfunnel.com lift model
Source: Widerfunnel.com

The product is also important and the advertising man Dave Trott sums its influence up perfectly.

“The product creates the experience. The experience creates the reputation. The reputation creates the brand.” Dave Trott, One + One = Three.

Some gambling brands clearly understand this. Mr Green for example has created an outstanding online experience with a compelling proposition. This includes a quirky website design which definitely has the novelty factor.

They made responsible gambling prominent in their sign up process long before it became mandatory in the UK and employed account verification measures to prevent customers opening multiple accounts. This strategy of openness and responsibility helps build credibility and confidence among online players that the site is both reliable and trustworthy.

Insight:

  • Your value proposition needs to be much more than just a bonus as otherwise you may only have price to differentiate between you and the competition. When a new visitor lands on a site they will often decide within a matter of seconds whether your proposition appeals to them and so it is essential that you get their attention with relevant imagery, headings, clear reasons to explore further and establish your credibility.
  • As Phil Barden explains in his book Decoded – The science behind why we buy, products work at an explicit level (e.g. we want to play a game of poker) , but brands are perceived to have psychological benefits that help differentiate them from each other (e.g. they offer escapism, fun and recognition of success ).  A strong brand needs to deliver on both explicit and implicit (psychological) goals by communicating a compelling value proposition.
6 main implicit psychologial goals
Source: Decode Marketing

 

  • Phil identified 6 core psychological goals that customers might expect brands to deliver on. These are based on the latest research from the fields of neuroscience and psychology. Check out his book Decoded – I strongly recommend it.

Conclusion:

If a gaming brand is not strongly associated with relevant psychological goals then customers may take the free bonus, but they are unlikely to ever return once they have used it up. Psychological goals are especially important for products where there is little to differentiate between individual brands. Gambling sites are often perceived to have similar offerings and so understanding those deep psychological goals are key to acquisition and retention rates.

Thank you for reading my post and if you found it useful please share using the social media icons on the page.

You can view my full Digital Marketing and Optimization Toolbox here.

To browse links to all my posts on one page please click here.

  • Neal has had articles published on website optimisation on Usabilla.com  and as an ex-research and insight manager on the GreenBook Blog research website.  If you wish to contact Neal please send an email to neal.cole@outlook.com. You can follow Neal on Twitter @northresearch and view his LinkedIn profile.

Are People More Rational When Buying Financial Services & Big Ticket Items?

Insights From Behavioural Economics:

I’ve worked as a customer insight and research manager in financial services (FS) for most of  my career. During this time I’ve noticed that colleagues often assume that people are more rational when buying financial products compared to other categories of goods and services. There is a perception that FS products are more ‘serious’ than your average fast moving consumer goods product (FMCG).

This view is sometimes supported by The Consumer Involvement Theory. The theory suggests FS purchases fall into the high involvement and rational segment of the model. This is due to the relatively high cost of FS products and that purchases are more about logic and less about emotion. You don’t buy a pension everyday!

Image of mri-head scan
Source: Freeimages.com

But what does the evidence from experiments in behavioural economics and neuroscience indicate about rational decision making in the face of risk and uncertainty?  Are consumers’ really discreet, self-determining individuals who make considered, rational decisions?

This view increasingly looks misguided and is probably a fallacy created by our own minds to make us feel in control of our behaviour. As Mark Earls points out in his book Herd:

“Our failure to acknowledge the truth about human nature distorts our attempts to understand human behaviour and frustrates our attempts to change it. Bad theory = Bad Plan = Ineffective action.” Mark Earls on Stephen Pinker, Herd

Behavioural economists Dan Airely and Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman have uncovered strong evidence that rational decision making is often an illusion. That is not say people don’t behave differently when considering money issues. Dan Ariely found that just thinking about money makes people more selfish, self-reliant and less charitable. However, these traits don’t necessarily make people more rational in their FS decision making.

image of US $100 notes
Source: Freeimages.com

Insight identified from behavioural economists challenge many of the basic assumptions of traditional economics and related theories of decision making. Some of the Key insights are:

  • Emotions – Human decision making is unconsciously driven by our emotions and social norms much more than we have appreciated in the past. This is due in part by our reliance on our fast, intuitive, but largely unconscious mind. Daniel Kahneman refers to this as system 1. This makes the majority of our decisions. But its frequent use of  rules of thumb (heuristics)  make people prone to biases that can lead to sub-optimal decisions.
Image of woman looking happy and holding word Joy
Source: Freeimages.com

 

  • Answering an easier question – Because we find cognitive thought hard work, system 1 will often substitute an easier question for a difficult question to answer instead. It will do this automatically if we are unable to easily retrieve an answer to a hard question.
  • Context dependency – Our state of mind and the decisions we make are heavily influenced by the environment within which we find our selves. This leads to inconsistencies in our decision making that we are largely unaware of.
Image of computer memory chips
Source: FreeImages.com

 

  • Memory – Our recall of events is unreliable and heavily biased towards the beginning, the peak of activity and the end of an event. We neglect the duration of an event and have little awareness of our true motivations. Indeed, every time we try to retrieve a memory our brain has to reconstruct it and inevitably this changes what it contains. This explains why sometimes we create false memories that we genuinely believe are accurate.
  • Illusion of understanding – Kahneman uses the acronym WYSIATI (What You See Is All There Is) to describe our tendency to think that the limited information we have about the world is all that there is to know.  Humans create narrative fallacies in an attempt to make sense of what are often random events.

“Our comforting conviction that the world makes sense rests on a secure foundation: our almost unlimited ability to ignore our ignorance.” Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, fast and slow

Image of Herd of Wildebeest and Zebras walking in Masai Mara, Kenya 1995
Source: FreeImages.com

 

  • People herd –  As Mark Earls points out humans are a “super social species”. Our behaviour is unconsciously influenced by what other people do and more so than we realise or like to admit. In the face of uncertainty we look to how other people behave and will often follow their lead.
  • Demand is social – Mark Earls  argues that market size and market share are primarily a function of consumer-to-consumer interaction. The implication being that rather than focusing on supply side factors, marketing should pay more attention to understanding and modelling interactions that generate mass behaviour (i.e. consumer-to-consumer interactions).

“You have to understand the rules of interaction – the accepted behaviours and rules of thumb of the individuals whose interaction generates the complexity of behaviour that you are studying – because these will shape the outcome of interactions.“ Mark Earls, Herd

  • People care about others – Real people are also sometimes generous and willing to contribute to the good of the community. These are not the characteristics of a rational person described by traditional economic theory.
  • We think of a reason after the event – So peoples’ decisions are mainly influenced by factors that they are not consciously aware of. Humans review and post-rationalize decisions. This suggests that our perceptions of a product or brand are likely to change after an action rather than before as implied by traditional marketing models like AIDA (Attention, Interest, Desire, Action).  It should probably be changed to Context, Attention, Emotion/social norms, Action, Review, Memory (C.A.E.A.R.M). Not a great acronym, but I still find marketing people using the old AIDA model so we do need to encourage them to move on from it.

 

PROSPECT THEORY:

So what specifically does behavioural economics have to say about FS decision making?  Risk and uncertainty is at the heart of Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky’s Prospect theory. Three cognitive principles form the basis of the theory:

  • The perceived value of a decision outcome (the utility derived) is dependent upon the history of one’s wealth (the reference point). This may seem obvious, but traditional economics does not recognise that a poor person will perceive a gain of £1,000 as generating more utility than would a millionaire. A person’s reference point is often the current status quo.
  • People experience diminishing sensitivity to both sensory changes (e.g. light) and to changes in wealth. So for example the subjective difference between £1,000 and £1,100 is much smaller than between £100 and £200.
  • Humans are loss averse. When compared against each other people dislike losing more than they like winning. Thus losses loom larger than gains even though the value in monetary terms may be identical. This explains why investors find it painful to sell shares that are below their purchase price and find it easier to sell shares that are in profit. This is not rational behaviour.

 LOSS AVERSION:

Loss aversion is key to understanding how people perceive financial services, and  gambling of course. Extensive research has been undertaken to estimate the psychological value of losses and gains. These studies have identified a loss aversion ratio of between 1.5 and 2.5. This means that a loss that is identical in money terms to a gain is valued up to 2.5 times more than the gain.

Image of roulette wheel
Source: FreeImages.com

Interestingly, professional risk takers such as fund managers and full-time gamblers  are more tolerant of losses. This may be because they are less emotionally aroused than the amateur investor. Loss aversion leads to predictable behaviours in a number of situations:

  • If a potential loss could be ruinous or would threaten their lifestyle, people will normally dismiss the option completely. Only obsessive gamblers would normally consider this type of situation.
  • Where people are presented with a situation where both a gain and a loss are possible people tend to make extreme risk averse choices. For example a person is presented  with the choice between a small guaranteed gain over 5 years (e.g. a deposit based account) and a stock market linked product that carries a low risk of a large loss. People have a tendency to focus on the large potential loss and often select the former, less risky option. This is why advisers will focus on the large upside potential of a stock market linked investment and try to play down any potential for large losses.
  • Where the choice is between a certain loss and a larger loss that is just a probability (i.e. there is a chance of no loss), diminishing sensitivity can result in  excessive risk taking. This explains why private investors sometimes refuse to cut their losses on poorly performing shares and instead invest more money (to reduce the average purchase price) in the hope that the price will recover sufficiently to avoid a loss. This is known as the sunk-cost fallacy.


“Loss aversion is a powerful conservative force that favors minimal changes from the status quo in the lives of both institutions and individuals.” Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, fast and slow.

 

THE POSSIBILITY AND CERTAINTY EFFECTS:

 

  • When considering FS decision making it also necessary to understand how consumer evaluate risks. There are two key biases that relate to the psychological value (weight) given by people to different probabilities or risks.

Image of royal flush poker hand

  • The possibility effect results in highly unlikely (low probability) events being given more weight than they justify. This helps explain the attractiveness of both gambling and insurance policies that cover unlikely events (e.g. extended warranties).
  • The certainty effect leads to events that are almost certain being given less weight than their probability justifies.
  • Indeed, research shows that unlikely events (1% to 2% probability) are over weighted by a factor of 4. However, for an almost certain event the difference is even larger. In experiments a 2% chance of not winning was given a weighting of 13% (or an 87.1% chance of winning).

RARE EVENTS:

  • Where the odds of an event are very small (e.g. around 0.001% or less) people become almost completely indifferent to variations in levels of risk. Rather emotional factors and how a risk is framed are the key drivers of how people react to these levels of risk. This explains why after a terrorist attack there tends to be more focus on whether insurances cover such risks even though the level of risk (to an individual) remains extremely low. It also helps to explain why people are often too willing to bet on extreme events happening.

“When the top prize is very large, ticket buyers appear indifferent to the fact that their chance of winning is minuscule.” Daniel Khaneman, Thinking, fast and slow

  • Kahneman also found evidence that rich and vivid descriptions of an outcome (e.g. the lifestyle of a lottery winner) helps to reduce the impact of probabilities. In particular he found that people are more heavily influenced (in terms of weighting of probabilities) if an event is described by using frequencies (e.g. the number of people) than by abstract concepts such as chance or risk.

RISK AND NARROW FRAMING:

  • Due to our use of intuitive thinking (system 1) and the laziness of system 2, most people have a tendency to evaluate individual risks separately and independently. People tend to make decisions when a problem arises rather than trying to look at the bigger picture.

 

  • What Khaneman found was that this approach will almost always lead to sub-optimal decisions due to our focus on loss aversion. The best solution is to aggregate decisions together. A professional investor achieves this by always looking at individual shares as part of a balanced portfolio. This reduces the impact of loss aversion on our preferences.

MENTAL ACCOUNTS:

  • People hold their money  in different accounts, some of which are real and some are only mental (e.g. money from my dad to buy my daughter a present). There is normally the everyday spending account, general savings, savings assigned for emergencies, maybe savings designated for private education and so on. People use mental accounting as an aid to self control. They have a clear hierarchy of willingness to use these accounts to cover their immediate needs and have an emotional attachment to the state of their mental accounts.
  • Mental accounting is a form of narrow framing and can have disastrous consequences in financial services. It often leads to private investors to set up a separate mental account for each share they own. This results in investors wanting to close each account as a gain. So when they need money for their daughter’s wedding what do they do? They have a very strong preference to sell winners rather than losers. It also helps to explain why consumers might have an outstanding credit card balance of £2,000 (with an APR of around 20%), and yet have savings of £10,000 (paying just 4% interest). These are not rational behaviours.
Image of man with hands over face
Source: FreeImages.com

REGRET:

  • Emotions are also an important factor in how we evaluate gains and losses. Most theories of decision making assume that people evaluate available options in a choice separately and independently. This does not reflect human nature. People feel regret when the experience of an outcome is affected by an alternative option that was open to them, but they did not choose. Thus missing out on selecting the top performing managed fund may influence the perception of your investment choice.

ARE PEOPLE REALLY MORE RATIONAL WHEN BUYING FS PRODUCTS?

  • The evidence clearly suggests no. People are prone to the same biases when purchasing FS products as they are when buying consumer goods. Even the result of the 2016 UK referendum  on membership of the EU appeared to be more driven by gut instinct and emotion than rational deliberation. Similarly,  FS decisions are often subject to powerful disruptive forces (e.g. loss aversion and mental accounting) than every day purchases.  This demonstrates the importance of regulation to protect people (e.g. cooling off periods) and consumer education in the FS sector.

WHY DO FS MANAGEMENT BELIEVE IN RATIONAL CONSUMERS?

Image of a calculator
Source: FreeImages.com

 

  • Senior management in the FS sector is dominated by a series of very numerate professions who are highly skilled at estimating risks and calculating probabilities. There are actuaries in life & pensions, underwriters in general insurance and lending, bankers, accountants, and a smattering of economists. Given their training and experience of dealing with risk and uncertainty they are less prone to key cognitive biases such as risk aversion and mental accounting. For this reason FS management are less likely to appreciate how strongly consumer behaviour is influenced by these biases.

I observed an example of this when I worked for a large UK life assurance company.  We developed a Guaranteed Capital Bond that protected your initial investment and provided some limited potential to benefit from any rise in the stock market. It researched well, but the CEO (who was an actuary) thought it wouldn’t sell. It didn’t offer enough upside potential if the stock market grew strongly. The Director of Sales & Marketing (a sales person) was supportive of the launch because he understood how loss averse people can be. I don’t need to say who won the argument when it went on sale.

IMPLICATIONS FOR MARKETING:

 I could write a whole post on the implication for market research arising from the above insights. Instead I would like to finish with just a few suggestions for consideration:

Google Analytics homepage

  • Use analytics to better understand current customer behaviour. In the digital age we can now use web analytics to track and measure online customer behaviour. We also have the ability to conduct online experiments (i.e. A/B and Multivariate testing). But even in the off-line world there are many sources of data to explore and analyse before we need to conduct primary research.
  • Fewer focus groups please! In some FS organisations focus groups appear to be the default research tool. In a previous post, Should you stop using focus groups, I pointed out my own concerns about this method of research. Interestingly John Kearon of BrainJuicer made a similar observation:

“Yes, they (Focus groups) can reveal powerful insights in the hands of a great researcher, but all too often they are just the lazy default of unquestioning research buyers and produce little or no insight on the subject at hand.” John Kearon, BrainJuicer

  • Don’t ask direct questions but instead observe behaviour. People are unreliable in their recall of why they make decisions. Insights are more likely to emerge from observing human behaviour during key experiences than trying to ask direct questions. This can be carried out in a number of ways including ethnography, auto-ethnography, eye tracking  and analysis of customer interactions (e.g. telephone calls) with customer facing staff.
  • Covert monitoring of behaviour. There is plenty of evidence to show that people behave differently when they know they are being observed. I used video mystery customers (using a hidden camera) to evaluate training and development needs for one company’s sales team. I was informed that almost all of them met agreed standards when they were accompanied on visits by a trainer. However, almost the opposite was observed when we analysed the videos of the mystery customer appointments. Unless you have regular monitoring of service standards in place you can’t be sure what level of service your customers are receiving.
  • Customer facing staff. Listening to sales people, advisers, brokers, telephone agents, people who speak with customers on a daily basis can very insightful. People are better at observing how other people behave than trying to explain their own behaviour. Experienced sales people collect a wealth of knowledge about how customers respond to different strategies, what turns them off, what excites them, what confuses them and what appears to motivate them.
  • Co-create. A collaborative approach to research encourages mutual respect and shared learning. Including social influencers (i.e people who shape attitudes and behaviours of their peers) in the process helps ensure the generation of more innovative ideas than would be the case with only experts and working parties involved. Collaboration also helps break down barriers between different stakeholders and speed up concept development and refinement.
  • Crowd sourcing. There is growing evidence that asking large groups of people to participate in predictive markets can be a very good way of selecting winners. James Surowiecki’s book, The Wisdom of Crowds, has a mass of evidence to support this approach.

“By examining the interactions and behaviours that a particular group of people has, it is possible to identify the underlying rules that drive it.” Mark Earls, Herd

  • The mistake many organisations make is to see Word of Mouth (WoM) as a channel rather than the way consumers interact and influence each other. To benefit from this insight it is necessary to understand the conditions of interactions (e.g. the environment) and the rules of interaction (e.g. how people engage with each other).  By making small changes to either or both of these elements of interaction we may be able to significantly influence individual and ultimately group (e.g. private investors)  behaviour.

Now published on the GreenBook Blog market research website!

Thank you for reading my post. I hope it challenged your thinking about consumer decision making and the implications of behavioural economics for marketing.

You can view my full Digital Marketing and Optimization Toolbox here.

To browse links to all my posts on one page please click here.

Further reading:

Thinking, fast and slow – By Daniel Kahneman.

Herd  – How to change mass behaviour by harnessing our true nature – By Mark Earls

Thinking, fast and slow by Daniel Kahneman, Herd by Mark Earls (@Herdmeister), Influence by Robert B. Cialdini, PHD (@RobertCialdini) ; Predictably Irrational by Dan Ariely (@danariely); the Upside of irrationality by Dan Ariely; The Wisdom of Crowds by James Surowiecki; Consumer.ology by Philip Graves (@philipgraves); Nudge by Richard Thaler (@R_Thaler).

  • About the author:  Neal provides digital optimisation consultancy services and has worked for  brands such as Deezer.comFoxybingo.com, Very.co.uk and partypoker.com.  He identifies areas for improvement using a combination of approaches including web analytics, heuristic analysis, customer journey mapping, usability testing, and Voice of Customer feedback.  By  aligning each stage of the customer journey  with the organisation’s business goals this helps to improve conversion rates and revenues significantly as almost all websites benefit from a review of customer touch points and user journeys.
  • Neal has had articles published on website optimisation on Usabilla.com  and as an ex-research and insight manager on the GreenBook Blog research website.  If you wish to contact Neal please send an email to neal.cole@outlook.com. You can follow Neal on Twitter @northresearch and view his LinkedIn profile.