The Psychology of Rewards & How To Motivate Your Customers.

 

Understanding Automatic Behaviour:

To encourage visitors to undertake a new behaviour on your  website, such as making a first purchase or playing a game, you might want to offer something to reward that activity. But when should you provide a reward and how do you encourage repetitive behaviour?

These were the same kind of question that the American psychologist B. F. Skinner wanted to answer in the 1950s. He wanted to go beyond the work of Pavlov on ‘classical conditioning’ and investigate how rewards influence behaviour.

Source: FreeImages.com
Source: FreeImages.com

Pavlov discovered that animals (including humans) learn to respond automatically to certain stimuli (e.g. food) and that if you add further stimuli (e.g. a bell before the food arrives), you can also get them to automatically respond  to that (e.g. salivate) in the same way. If you then remove the original stimulus (e.g. food) animals will continue to respond to the new stimuli because the behaviour has become automatic.

 

Encouraging Automatic Behaviour:

Image of mri-head scan
Source: Freeimages.com

Classical conditioning is important to conversion because we are more likely to be successful if we can make people do things automatically.  This is one reason to ensure your navigation and site layout conform to web conventions (e.g. navigation is either at the top or left hand-side of the page) as people will automatically know where to look for them.

Skinner developed powerful new theories of behavioural analysis (often referred to as operant conditioning), based upon continuously testing different scenarios to identify how the frequency and predictability of rewards influences behaviour.  He called these differences “schedules”. The five schedules he examined are:

  1. Continuous reinforcement – You reward the behaviour every
    time it is completed.
  2. Fixed interval – You reinforce the behaviour with a reward
    at fixed time intervals after the first time the behaviour is undertaken.
  3. Variable interval – You provide a reward after an interval
    of time, but you randomise the amount of time to make it unpredictable.
  4. Fixed ratio – Rather than basing the reward on time, it is
    determined by the number of times the behaviour is completed and this number remains constant.
  5. Variable ratio – Here the reward is again based upon the
    number of times the task is undertaken, but the number is randomised to make it unpredictable.

So, what did Skinner discover about these different
schedules and how can we apply it to the real world?

Establishing a new behaviour:

Image of cash back promotions from Very.co.uk
Source: Very.co.uk

Continuous reinforcement is the most effective schedule when we are trying to establish a new behaviour. Providing a reward every time helps to reinforce the behaviour and there is no uncertainty about getting the reward. However, once the behaviour is established switch to a different schedule as otherwise the behaviour will become intermittent and stop if the reward ceases.

Many ecommerce websites use money off discounts or coupons
to reward people for making their first online order.  It is a clear and unambiguous way of incentivising people to add items to their basket and complete the order process.  However, many customers fail to return regularly and so what should companies do next?

Making Behaviour Stick:

 

Free slots games image

 

To encourage repeat behaviour a variable ratio schedules is most effective because it is linked to how often the behaviour is undertaken. As it is unpredictable people complete the behaviour over and over again as they are unsure when the next reward will be received.  Such schedules are resistant to extinction by their very nature and help to make some behaviour addictive.

Gaming websites understand this aspect of psychology very well. They ensure rewards are directly linked to how many times a game is played, but use the unpredictability of randomising the frequency of rewards to maintain a level of  suspense.  Loyalty schemes often fail because although they may be based upon the frequency of purchasing behaviour they are usually too predictable and lack that random reward.

Regular and Stable Behaviour:

Image of man on surf board
Source: FreeImages.com

When you don’t want to encourage a lot of the behaviour at once, but would prefer it to be steady and regular, a variable interval
schedule is usually best. This is not very effective at establishing new behaviours as people are unsure if they will get rewarded when they complete the task.  However, once the behaviour is established
this type of schedule provides a clear incentive to continue with an activity provided the maximum time period between rewards is not too great.

Ecommerce sites use this to their advantage by varying the  frequency of discount offers and sales to encourage visitors to keep returning to their website. If the timing of discounts is too predictable visitors soon learn only to return to the site when they know an offer is available. Making sure that the timing of discounts is unpredictable creates a reason to return on a regular basis.

For a Burst of Behaviour, But it Won’t Last:

 

To get a sudden increase in activity a fixed ratio schedule will result in such behaviour. But beware as once the goal is achieved you will see decline in the behaviour. The classic example is the buy 10 cups of coffee and get the next one free.

Show How Close Customers are to The Reward:

Research into fixed ratio schedules has shown that you should show how close people are to achieving the reward as people accelerate their behaviour as they progress towards the goal. The insight here is that people are more motivated by how much is left to reach their target rather than how far they have come.

For a Sudden Spike in Behaviour:

 

The problem with fixed interval schedules is that people have a tendency not to take much notice of them until just before the time the reward is due.  They are too predictable and so continuous reinforcement would be more effective at encouraging a new
behaviour.  Seasonal sales suffer from this as visitors surge during the sale but fall off dramatically once it is over. Flash sales can help counter this predictability and give visitors more reason to return to your site on  a regular basis.

Image of Flash Sale

Encourage Baby Steps:

 

Image of toddler taking first steps
Source: FreeImages.com

What if you want to encourage a new behaviour, but your visitors can’t or won’t adopt the behaviour until they have undertaken other tasks (e.g. registration or adding items to the basket). Shaping is psychological process that involves rewarding an earlier activity that will lead to the desired behaviour.

This works best with small behaviours and that you identify every
instance of the activity that you want to encourage. It is then important that you reward it every time with something the visitor sees as a positive reinforcement (e.g. praise or loyalty points etc.) and give it immediately after the behaviour. Shaping is a great way of nudging your visitors towards your ultimate goal by positively reinforcing those small baby steps that lead to the target behaviour.

Choice of Reward:

 

When selecting rewards it’s important to give something a person really wants as otherwise it won’t motivate them.  Try A/B testing different rewards to see what engages your visitors most.  Many organisations copy what their competitors are offering, but try testing something novel as people are instinctively drawn to new or different rewards.

Remove Something Your Customers Don’t Like:

 

Negative reinforcement, where you take something away that
people don’t like, can also work to encourage a desired behaviour.  Many e-commerce sites now offer to remove shipping costs completely if your order value is above a certain amount. People
dislike paying for shipping costs and so by removing them you reward customers whose basket value is over the specified amount.

Punishment is Less Effective:

 

Image of alcatraz prison cells
Source: FreeImages.com

Punishing people is different from reinforcement as you are
applying a behaviour that the person doesn’t want to reduce an activity you want to stop. However, punishment is generally less effective than reinforcement because it is harder to get people to stop doing something than finding an alternative for them to do instead. Indeed, punishments can sometimes back-fire as people change their behaviour in unexpected ways to avoid the pain.

In one case a day care nursery applied a late pick-up fee for parents who collected their children after 6pm with the intention that it would reduce the behaviour. The opposite happened as the nature of the relationship changed.  Before the fee was applied parents might feel some guilt that they were preventing the day care staff from getting home. But once the fee was applied it became a pure monetary transaction that the parents felt they were compensating the nursery for and so did not feel so guilty about.

Finally:

 

Using the appropriate schedule for rewarding visitors on your website can be a powerful means of engaging and encouraging desired behaviours. Ensure you take time to test different rewards though so that you find what motivates your customers. Try removing things that might cause your customers pain (e.g. fees or charges) especially if you can link it to targeted behaviours.

Thank you for reading this post. If you found this post useful please share using the social media icons below.

 

You can view my full Digital Marketing and Optimization Toolbox here.

To browse links to all my posts on one page please click here.

Recommended reading: How to Get People to Do Stuff: Master the Art and Science of Persuasion and Motivation by Susan M. Weinschenk, Ph.D.

  • About the author:  Neal provides digital optimisation consultancy services and has worked for  brands such as Deezer.comFoxybingo.com, Very.co.uk and partypoker.com.  He identifies areas for improvement using a combination of approaches including web analytics, heuristic analysis, customer journey mapping, usability testing, and Voice of Customer feedback.  By  aligning each stage of the customer journey  with the organisation’s business goals this helps to improve conversion rates and revenues significantly as almost all websites benefit from a review of customer touch points and user journeys.
  • Neal has had articles published on website optimisation on Usabilla.com  and as an ex-research and insight manager on the GreenBook Blog research website.  If you wish to contact Neal please send an email to neal.cole@outlook.com. You can follow Neal on Twitter @northresearch and view his LinkedIn profile.

12 Cross-Browser Testing Tools To Improve User Experience & Increase Conversion.

For my Free Digital Marketing Toolbox click here.

Why Cross-Browser Solutions?

Webpages can look very different in each browser they are viewed in because a browser understands some code slightly different than other browsers. This can often be the cause of your conversion rate being significantly lower for some of your supported browsers.

With over 1,000 combinations of browsers, operating systems and plugins it is practically impossible to check every single page to ensure it renders correctly for all users. Even if you only focus on checking the most common browsers, OS, device and plug-ins it is still a very time consuming and complex process.

For most organisations it is likely to be more efficient and better use of your scare resource to get a company that specialises in this task. They can quickly check and come back to you with screen shots from multiple browsers, operating systems, devices etc. You can then concentrate on the analysis and fixing problems identified.

1. Browsera:  Browsera locates cross-browser layout problems automatically by comparing each browser’s output and reporting on JavaScript errors. The site crawling feature allows for easy testing of all the pages on your site. It can also test pages behind login and does not require any installation as the service works entirely in the cloud. The Free plan offers limited browsers, deferred processing, public pages and low resolution screenshots. However, the Free plan does include problem detection, site crawling and JavaScript errors.

2. BrowseEmAll: Live testing, automated screenshots and compatibility reporting all from your own PC. BrowserEmAll operates from your local machine to find cross-browser problems, optimize for mobile devices using simulators for iOS and Android, test local pages and allows you to run different browsers side-by-side.

BrowserEmAll is great for testing websites protected by firewalls because it is on your own machine and you can run up to four different browsers side-by-side and instantly see how a change affects the page rendering in your selected browsers. Free trial licence key available on request.

3. Browsererling: Offers a limited Free live interactive cross-browser testing that is powered by HTML 5 canvas and JavaScript so no need for Flash, Applets or anything to install. Simply enter your URL and when your test is ready you have 3 minutes to review it. The paid plan unlocks ‘premium’ browsers such as Internet Explorer 6 to 11, and provides Secure Shell Tunnels (SSH), resolution changes and premium support.

4. BrowserShots: Is a Free (though there is a charge for priority processing) open-source online web application that takes screenshots of your web pages in different operating systems and browsers.  It uses a number of distributed computers to open your website in their browser. It will then take screenshots and upload them to a central  dedicated server for you to view.

5. BrowserStack: Provides easy access to all desktop and mobile browsers using live, web-based testing. You can test internal servers or local HTML designs, via remote browsers through a secure local testing setup. Free trial offer gives access to over 700 desktop and mobile browsers.

6. Cross Browser Testing: Covers over 1,000 combinations of browsers, operating systems and plugins.  Just enter your URL, select your browsers and get automated screenshots of how your website renders. Check Ajax, HTML forms, JavaScript and Flash  in most browsers and operating systems in your own browser or through a remote VNC connection. Also checks most major mobile devices.

The comparison feature allows you to choose a ‘base’ browser as a benchmark and provides a summary of rendering differences, plus screenshots of images side-by-side to identify layout issues. Allows you to test locally, even behind firewalls and secure login. You can also change the browser, cache, cookie settings and turn JavaScript off if required. Free trial and demo available.

7. Ghostlab: Provides synchronized testing of web and mobile for scrolls, clicks, reloads, and form input. This allows you to test the whole customer experience and identify problems connected with the DOM programming interface or JavaScript output.

Using their development tool you can inspect the DOM on connected devices remotely and make live changes to the DOM. Changes are synced to all connected devices, providing instant feedback on how it will affect your site on other devices. The remote JavaScript debugging feature allows you to debug JavaScript code on any client that is connected to Ghostlab. Free full-featured 7 day demo.

8. IE NetRenderer: A Free service that allows you to check how webpages render in Internet Explorer 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6 or 5.5, as seen from a high speed data centre located in Germany. Type in your URL into the field and it comes back with your page almost immediately.

9. Litmus: Provides cross-browser testing as an additional feature to its email preview service. The latter shows previews across more than 30 email clients and devices, with images of how your message looks in the preview pane, and with images on and off. For cross-browser testing simply enter the URL and Litmus will show you how it looks in most popular browsers.

Further, Litmus offers link validation by providing a screenshot of each web page that a link in an email takes a recipient to and it certifies that the URLs you are linking to are not blacklisted. It also confirms that you click-throughs are being tracked correctly.

Offers unlimited and enterprise plans that allow you to use only the features you need, add as many users as you need, organize your account and re-sell Litmus without an integration. 7 day Free trial available.

10. SauceLabs: An automated cross-browser checking service for desktop and mobile. Covers over 450 browser and platform configurations. Enables access to live breakpoints during testing which allows you to investigate problems manually during the process. Free 14-day trial available for all sizes of organisation.

11. Spoon: This is a browser sandbox which currently covers Chrome, Firefox, IE, Opera, Safari, Firefox mobile, Opera mobile and Opera mini. Spoon offers manual and automated browser testing. The browsers run within isolated virtual containers, eliminating the need for installs and allowing legacy browsers such as Internet Explorer 6 to run on Windows 7 and 8. Just click Run for any browser to launch it instantly.

Containerised browsers behave the same as installed browsers, and because they run locally, you can test web applications hosted on your own development machine or on internal servers. Spoon browsers also support standard browser components like Java applets and ActiveX controls, as well as common plugin like Firebug, JE Developer Toolbar, and CSS and JavaScript debugging consoles.

Spoon browsers support standard browser components like Java applets and ActiveX controls as well as popular browser plugins like Firebug, IE Developer Toolbar, and CSS and JavaScript debugging consoles.

Browser Studio is Spoon’s three-step tool for creating custom browser containers. Choose your browser, and version, pick the run times and plugins you need and Spoon will create your custom test environment in minutes. This for instance allows you to test a web application with a Java dependency or see if Flash breaks your website.

12. TestingBot: Provides either automated or manual cross-browser testing with Selenium in the cloud. You can operate tests in 198 browser/OS combinations and every test runs on a virtual machine. Manual testing allows you to control browsers interactively from your own machine or you can run automated tests by choosing which browsers to test. You decide when automated tests should run and over what time frame.

Advanced reporting for each test includes multiple screenshots, video of your test and detailed statistics about the test. Their secure testing environment allows you to run tests on your local computer, on a LAN, or on a server via VPN. Offers a two week Free trial.

All the subscription services offer some kind of free trial and so you have nothing to lose by giving one or more a try out.

Thank you for reading my post and I hope you found it useful.  If you did find my post of value please click on the social media icons at the bottom of the page to show your appreciation.

You can view my full Digital Marketing and Optimization Toolbox here.

To browse links to all my posts on one page please click here.

 

  • About the author:  Neal provides digital optimisation consultancy services and has worked for  brands such as Deezer.comFoxybingo.com, Very.co.uk and partypoker.com.  He identifies areas for improvement using a combination of approaches including web analytics, heuristic analysis, customer journey mapping, usability testing, and Voice of Customer feedback.  By  aligning each stage of the customer journey  with the organisation’s business goals this helps to improve conversion rates and revenues significantly as almost all websites benefit from a review of customer touch points and user journeys.
  • Neal has had articles published on website optimisation on Usabilla.com  and as an ex-research and insight manager on the GreenBook Blog research website.  If you wish to contact Neal please send an email to neal.cole@outlook.com. You can follow Neal on Twitter @northresearch and view his LinkedIn profile.

Why Did The Opinion Polls Get It So Wrong in 2015?

 

The Market Research Industry Is In The Dock Over UK General Election Polls

The shock result of the the UK general election has again called into question the market research industry’s ability to accurately predict real behaviour. Is this an example of an outdated and flawed measurement method being shown to be incapable of delivering the insights it is meant to provide? Is it time for a fundamental review of pre-election polling methods?

The reasons for pre-election opinion polls potentially being inaccurate are not new. They are well understood in the industry, but some have become more challenging with recent political events in the UK.

 

People are poor predictors of their own behaviour: Opinions change over time and we are very social creatures who are heavily influenced by those around us. Relying on asking people direct questions about future behaviour is fundamentally flawed as it ignores how the human brain works. People like to show the world a consistent exterior, but underneath we are complex and deeply inter-related creatures. We like to feel in control, but  dislike uncertainty, change and focus more on avoiding loss than potential gains.

The undecided voters are of course a major problem for the pollsters as they can swing one way or the other during the campaign. A sudden change in their intentions can dramatically alter the final outcome. The mass media in particular can have a strong impact on how important we perceive issues and how we might ultimately vote.

Exit polls of course have the advantage that they ask people about how they have just voted. Pre-election polls are just taking a snap-shot of voting intentions which may not be a true reflection of actual behaviour.

 

Wisdom of the crowd: When we want to predict an outcome using people to estimate a likely result, scientific research has shown that we are far better at forecasting what “other” people will do than being asked about our own intentions. Provided the crowd is drawn from a diverse group of people and they act independently, crowd research has been consistently shown to be more accurate than traditional opinion polls. Indeed, an ICM ‘wisdom’ poll did put the Conservative’s ahead of Labour, though not by as much as the final outcome. However, this could be related to the size of the crowd and other factors that determine crowd accuracy.

 

The political landscape has changed. Until recently we had just two main parties across the whole of the UK. This has changed and we now have a more fragmented political system and regional dynamics (i.e. the SNP) that undermines the traditional nationally representative poll.

 

Sample size influences the reliability of surveys. The exit poll for instance had a sample size of  20,000 compared to many pre-election polls that survey between 1,000 and 2,000 potential voters. This directly impacts upon how accurate research the can be given that there are 650 constituencies in the UK. With so few respondents potentially in each constituency it is not surprising that polls are inaccurate. Cost appears to be the main driver rather than reliability.

The latest YouGov survey that I came across does have a more robust sample of 10,000. However, with more regionally dynamic voting patterns this makes it much more difficult for the average nationally representative surveys to accurately predict voting intentions.

 

Who is going to vote? The market research companies have to define a very changeable group. As voting in the UK is not mandatory it is impossible to predict who will vote and who will not. There is plenty of evidence to show that certain party’s supporters are more or less likely to vote depending upon such factors as the weather.

Further, how pollsters define a “likely voter” varies and may be determined by whether they voted in the last election. But this is often based upon self-reporting which is not always accurate. In other instances people are simply asked if they plan to vote.

 

Dam lies and statistics. To compensate for all these different factors market research companies employ complex weighting and sampling techniques to adjust the demographics to provide a representative group of voters. However, as the wisdom of crowds has shown the less representative sample can often produce more accurate predictions.

 

Consistency and disclosure of methodology: As I have searched the internet for details of the pre-election polls I’ve noticed how difficult it is to find technical and methodological information on the polls. Even the sample size of some polls are not always clearly shown in articles.

However, different companies by definition do have their own methodologies and this lack of consistency may again lead to differing results. For example, for telephone polls how are the phone numbers sourced and how are they selected?

How accurate is the Census? With the UK being part of the European Union we have seen significant flows of people coming into and leaving the country. However, the demographic information used for weightings is primarily based upon the Census which is only conducted once every 10 years.

 

What next?

Given the inherent limitations of pre-election polls and the lack of consistency in how they are conducted and analysed there is certainly a need for a review of their usage during election campaigns. Greater disclosure of how polls are conducted and results are processed may also help with this process.

It remains to be seen whether the traditional opinion poll with all its limitations will continue in its current form. Given their failure to accurately predict the outcome of the 2015 UK General Election it seems likely that pressure will grow to improve their performance going forward. This could be a watershed moment for opinion polls in the UK.

You can view my full Digital Marketing and Optimization Toolbox here.

To browse links to all my posts on one page please click here.

  • About the author:  Neal provides digital optimisation consultancy services and has worked for  brands such as Deezer.comFoxybingo.com, Very.co.uk and partypoker.com.  He identifies areas for improvement using a combination of approaches including web analytics, heuristic analysis, customer journey mapping, usability testing, and Voice of Customer feedback.  By  aligning each stage of the customer journey  with the organisation’s business goals this helps to improve conversion rates and revenues significantly as almost all websites benefit from a review of customer touch points and user journeys.
  • Neal has had articles published on website optimisation on Usabilla.com  and as an ex-research and insight manager on the GreenBook Blog research website.  If you wish to contact Neal please send an email to neal.cole@outlook.com. You can follow Neal on Twitter @northresearch and view his LinkedIn profile.

Why Is Your Mobile Only User Journey Leaking Cash?

image of NASA Globe in Florida

 

The Rise of The Mobile Only User & My Experience with the NASA Tour Mobile Ticketing Journey

 

Since 2014 mobile devices have been the most used device to
browse the internet. But this is only a transient stage in the shift towards the dominance of mobile devices. The real change is mobile only, where users rely solely on their mobile devices and never return to a laptop or PC. According to research by Google more searches now take place on mobile devices than on computers in 10 countries including the US and Japan. Facebook reported that over half a billion users only visited their site or App via a mobile device.

Image of a Samsung Galaxy S6 Edge and headphones

Source: Samsung.com

What does this mean for website optimisation and conversion?
From a user’s perspective there will certainly be even more potential for distractions and interruptions as people begin, re-start and end conversations whilst online.  However, the most important change is that they may never see your desktop site again, particularly if they use your App. So, if it’s not on your App or mobile optimised site it won’t exist from their perspective.

This was highlighted to me recently when I visited Florida. Between theme parks I browsed on my mobile phone and decided it would be great to go on a tour of the NASA facilities at Cape Kennedy.  I had noticed that a SpaceX rocket launch was due during my stay and went to the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) site to ensure I wouldn’t disappoint my family (i.e. me).

After initially being confronted with a mobile responsive desktop site, I was taken to the KSC Complex “Mobile Ticketing!” page. What caught my eye here was the “Scan phone at entrance” message. Brilliant, just what I needed as I did not have easy access to a printer at the hotel.

 

image of Kennedy Space Center mobile ticketing site

 

I clicked on “Start Shopping” and selected the Daily Admission and Up-Close Explore Tour. Before I continued to the basket I browsed the information on the Up-Close Explore Tour. It promised to take us behind the scenes of the complex with commentary from a space expert.  Happy with this I then completed checkout and received a confirmation email with links to my mobile tickets.

 

image of Kennedy Space Center admission ticket

 

I took screen shots of each of my tickets and carried on with my holiday. When the day arrived I scanned my tickets at the turnstile and noticed lots of other people doing the same.

However, when I went to the information desk to register for the tour I was surprised to see people handing over their passports.  Sure enough, when it was my turn to be served I discovered that NASA requires all non-US residents to present their passports
to qualify for the Up-Close Explore Tour.

Unfortunately for me this was only displayed on printed tickets, not the mobile friendly tickets that I had used. Neither was it mentioned in the tour details or anywhere else on the mobile only user journey.

Although we still had a very enjoyable day it did spoil our experience and confirmed the importance of mapping out and testing the whole mobile only user journey from beginning to end. It also resulted in a refund of just over $100.

I had four people in my party, but we could make a conservative estimate that around 10 people a day are caught out by the lack of
messaging on the mobile only user journey.  That’s $250 a day or $1,750 a week in refunds. Over a year this would be a loss in
revenues of around $91,000
. This is certain to rise as mobile only journeys become the norm.

It is only a matter of time before mobile only experience becomes the most common user journey for many online businesses.  For this reason now is the time to ensure integration of mobile-friendly versions of all mission-critical assets, including promotional material, customer service and other key elements of the user journey.

Mobile only users expect to be able to access the same content as other visitors, but not on a site that was clearly designed for desktop users.  Asking them to pinch and zoom as they navigate around a site designed for a much larger screen is going to irritate and frustrate them. If you want to retain mobile only users you need to start
delivering a great customer experience for whatever device they decide to use. All relevant content needs to be easily and quickly accessible from a mobile device or else your competitors will probably take these customers away from you.

User habits and preferences are rapidly changing. Unless you act now to comprehensively integrate and test to meet the demands of the mobile only user there is a high risk that your customer journey will leak cash.

Thank you reading my post. If you found this useful please share with the social media icons on the page.

You can view my full Digital Marketing and Optimization Toolbox here.

To browse links to all my posts on one page please click here.

 

  • About the author:  Neal provides digital optimisation consultancy services and has worked for  brands such as Deezer.comFoxybingo.com, Very.co.uk and partypoker.com.  He identifies areas for improvement using a combination of approaches including web analytics, heuristic analysis, customer journey mapping, usability testing, and Voice of Customer feedback.  By  aligning each stage of the customer journey  with the organisation’s business goals this helps to improve conversion rates and revenues significantly as almost all websites benefit from a review of customer touch points and user journeys.
  • Neal has had articles published on website optimisation on Usabilla.com  and as an ex-research and insight manager on the GreenBook Blog research website.  If you wish to contact Neal please send an email to neal.cole@outlook.com. You can follow Neal on Twitter @northresearch and view his LinkedIn profile.